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Compensable Cases for Traumatic Brain Injury

Traumatic brain injuries can be devastating and can cause permanent problems. These type injuries can significantly impact your life, such as the ability to work, think and even communicate. Even mild cases can lead to long-lasting symptoms such as fatigue and irritability.

Unfortunately, mild traumatic brain injuries can be mismanaged both medically and legally. Without proper support, your recovery can take up your valuable time and finances without any tangible outcomes. During these hardships, it is essential to find compassionate and experienced traumatic brain injury experts and attorneys.

Mike Lombardi Injury Attorneys understand that these deficits can be a burden on your current lifestyles, such as your personal relations and financial situation. We aim to help you through these tough times and assist you with the compensation that you deserve. For more information, please visit Alternatively, you can either call or text, Mike Lombardi Injury Attorneys, on 401-600-0000.

Traumatic Brain Injury – What is it?

Traumatic Brain Injury or TBI refers to any damage to the brain by an external force, such as direct impact or whiplash. Examples of TBI can range from concussions, fractures to the skull to even potentially fatal injuries. These types of injuries can lead to both short-term and long-term physical, mental and emotional consequences.

In the USA alone, 5.3 million people are living with a disability caused by a TBI. Globally, it is one of the leading causes of disability and death for those under the age of 45. Typically, most TBIs occur during high impact forces, such as motor vehicle accidents (e.g. car, motorcycles, buses etc.) or falls.

Not all TBIs are equal. More severe TBIs can lead to critical states, such as unresponsiveness, amnesia or even coma. Interestingly, up to 90% of TBI cases are mild and present with more subtle symptoms without the loss of consciousness.

Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries

Everyone with TBI will present differently. As there aren’t any obvious or distinct signs of mild TBI, some cases can remain undiagnosed. In fact, you yourself may not even know you are suffering from an episode. One of the best ways to tell if you’ve experienced your TBI is based on the judgments of close friends or family. They will be able to observe any changes in behavior or personality associated with TBI.

Unfortunately, mild TBI is often underdiagnosed because of a lack of medical consensus. There is no “gold standard” or a single test to diagnose this condition accurately. Even MRI and CT scans are sometimes unable to detect any abnormalities in minor cases. Alarmingly, up to 50-90% of those who present to the Emergency Department leave undiagnosed. Immediate medical attention is required even for those with mild TBI.

Although most sufferers of mild TBI will recover favorably, others won’t experience the same outcomes. In some cases, symptoms can continue to persist even after six months and can significantly impact your work, lifestyle and even personal relations. You may also find yourself unable to work for extended periods due to residual symptoms. Even after returning to work, many will find that their productivity is compromised due to lingering fatigue. Overall, suffering from even mild TBI can be life-changing and result in a substantial financial burden.

“… subgroup of patients with mild TBI might be left with residual deficits or symptoms that impair their ability to fulfill their work, school, or family responsibilities.”

How do Traumatic Brain Injuries Occur?

TBIs primarily occurs through two different means. They are classified as 1) focal brain injuries and 2) diffuse brain injuries. When these traumatic events occur, you will undergo both primary and secondary injuries.

The primary injury refers to the mechanical damage to the brain sustained during the moment of impact or force. Following this, the secondary injury takes place over the next few hours or even days. During this stage, a “multidimensional cascade” will occur which refers to a series of chemical and physiological changes. Examples of the change that occur in the brain include:

  • Reduced blood flow
  • Excessive activity
  • Metabolic changes
  • Oedema and swelling
  • Inflammation
  • Focal Brain Injuries

    Focal brain injuries occur primarily through impact and/or collision. During the force of the impact, the brain will move inside the head and compress against the skull. As suggested by its name, the injury is usually sustained in only a single location of the brain. Causes of focal brain injuries may include:

  • Direct impact during a motor vehicle accident
  • Head knocks during sports injuries
  • Falling and landing on your head
  • Getting hit in the head with an object (e.g. ball, punch, weapon etc.)
  • Gunshot wounds
  • Force generated from blasts or explosions
  • focal brain injury
    Example of a focal brain injury due to impact. Source.

    2) Diffuse Brain Injuries

    Diffuse brain injuries are more widely distributed throughout the brain compared to focal variants. These types of injuries usually happen during sudden stopping or rotational forces such as whiplash injuries. When this occurs, the brain moves excessively within the skull, which causes stretching and shearing forces within the tissue. Causes of diffuse brain injuries may include:

  • Car accidents, especially with whiplash injuries
  • During a fall
  • Sports injuries, such as head knocks during football
  • Shaking injuries in babies 
  • diffuse brain injury due to whiplash
    Example of a diffuse brain injury due to whiplash. Source.

    Symptoms of Mild TBI

    After sustaining a TBI, symptoms are often variable depending on the individual’s characteristics, management and severity of the injury. For milder cases, your symptoms may manifest in several ways, such as physically, cognitively and emotionally. As behavioural and personality changes are challenging to assess by yourself, those always around you (e.g. family, friends, work colleagues, etc.) may notice these first. According to a comprehensive review published in The Lancet and the Mayo Clinic, symptoms associated with mild TBI include:

    Physical Symptoms

  • Dizziness
  • Headaches
  • Sleep disturbances
  • Vision Impairments
  • Fatigue
  • Nausea
  • Acute unconsciousness
    Cognitive Symptoms

  • Memory deficits
  • Loss of attention
  • Difficulty concentration 
  • Poor decision making
  • Emotional Symptoms

  • Irritability 
  • Mood swings
  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • What To Do After Being Diagnosed or Suspect a Traumatic Brain Injury?

    If you have sustained a head injury and suspect a TBI, we would recommend that you seek immediate medical attention (e.g. trauma center, emergency department, etc.). Even if you do not instantly experience symptoms, there could be delayed implications, such as swelling and deterioration (e.g. secondary injuries). Appropriate examinations should be performed, such as comprehensive history taking, physical examinations and imaging will be performed to determine the best course of management. 

    After you have been discharged, it’s essential that you continue seeking medical support such as community and hospital follow-ups. As symptoms can last for months, they may provide you with educational material, lifestyle advice and coping strategies. You may also consider other services, such as sleep counseling and cognitive behavioral therapy, to manage residual symptoms.

    If you have been diagnosed or suspect a TBI, you must consult an attorney who specializes in brain and personal injuries. Mild cases of TBI can become burdensome towards your livelihood and significant impact on your finances. In some circumstances, you may be misdiagnosed or discredited by some health professionals and insurance agencies alike. Seeking attorneys familiar with TBI is essential for achieving optimal outcomes and the correct compensation.


    Mike Lombardi Injury Attorneys provide exceptional services and are experienced with personal injury, workplace and on-road claims. We understand the significant impact and burden of TBI and will help you achieve the compensation you deserve. For any additional support or inquiries, please do not hesitate to call or text Mike Lombardi at 401-600-0000 or visit We will comprehensively help guide you through your injury and claim. 



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